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The liver makes bile that contains bile salts, that break down fat into smaller droplets emulsification. Bile is stored in the gall bladder. The pancreas makes digestive enzymes including proteases, amylases and lipases, and these are released into the small intestine. The first part of the small intestine is called the duodenum. The duodenum is relatively short and it is where the digestive enzymes from the pancreas are secreted.

The second part of the small intestine is called the ileum, which is specialized for the absorption of digested food. The ileum is long and has a very large surface area.

The inside of the ileum is folded and the folds have thousands of finger-like projections called villi. Furthermore, the cells on the villi have small projections called microvilli. Nutrients are absorbed by active transport.

The Circulatory System Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. They have a thick wall with plenty of elastic and muscle tissue to withstand the high pressure. Blood is pumped at high pressure so valves are not needed. Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart, at low pressure. Valves are needed to prevent the back-flow of blood. Veins have thinner walls. Capillaries join the arteries to the veins. They are very thin one cell thick and are responsible for delivering nutrients to and removing wastes from all tissues in the body.

Plasma leaks out of the capillaries into the tissues, which is known as tissue fluid. The tissue fluid carries glucose, amino acids, and other useful substances to the cells.

Oxygen diffuses out of the capillaries into the tissues, while carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood. Most tissue fluid returns by osmosis, and excess tissue fluid enters the lymphatic system through the lymph vessels. Humans have a double circulation, which means that blood passes the heart twice in every circuit.

Thus, blood is returned to the heart to gain high enough pressure to get through the capillaries of the body. The heart is a muscular pump made of a special type of tissue called cardiac muscle. The cardiac muscle stimulates itself by electrical impulses to produce a regular beat.

The heart is composed of four chambers: The top two chambers, the atria, receive the blood from the veins and then pump them into the arteries. The lower two chambers, the ventricles, pump blood out to the arteries. Atrioventricular AV valves also known as the bicuspid valve on the left and the tricuspid valve on the right close when the ventricles are pumping, to prevent blood from returning into the atria.

Semi-lunar valves close after blood is pumped out of the ventricles to prevent blood from returning to the ventricles. The right side of the heart carries deoxygenated blood that has returned from the body and is pumped to the lungs. Blood enters the right atrium through the vena cavae, and is pumped to the lungs through the pulmonary artery.

The left side of the heart carries oxygenated blood that has returned from the lungs and is pumped to the body. Blood enters the left atrium through the pulmonary vein, and is pumped to the body through the aorta.

The Respiratory System Breathing ventilation is a set of muscular movements that draw air in and out of the lungs. The lungs help the body take in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. The pleural membrane in the thorax forms an airtight pleural cavity. When the diaphragm contracts and the intercostal muscles contract, the volume of the pleural cavity increases, reducing the pressure. Air moves into the lungs and the lungs expand inhalation. The opposite occurs during exhalation. Gaseous exchange occurs in the millions of alveoli in the lungs, which are highly adapted for efficient gas exchange.

The walls of the alveoli are only one cell thick, and are surrounded by capillaries. The surface of the alveoli are moist so that gases can dissolve. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli while oxygen dissolves into the capillaries.

Respiration is the breakdown of food to generate energy. It is not the same as ventilation! In aerobic respiration, glucose and oxygen combine to make carbon dioxide and water, and energy. In humans, this produces lactic acid and energy. In yeast, this produces carbon dioxide, ethanol and energy. Anaerobic respiration by yeast is how breweries make beer and wine. Anaerobic respiration in humans releases much less energy than aerobic respiration.

When the vigorous exercise stops, excess oxygen is breathed in to break down the lactic acid. A calorimeter can be used to measure the energy content of food. Food is burnt in a closed container, and the temperature rise in the surrounding water is measured.

The Nervous System All living organisms can respond to their environment sensitivity. Plants usually respond more slowly than animals. However, the order of events is always the same: This coordinates all the information and sends a message to the effectors to bring about a response. These messages are sent by nerves faster or hormones slower.

Different receptors in the body respond to different stimuli. Receptors are often gathered together into sense organs, that have other various structures that help the receptors gain more information. The eye is a sense organ for detecting light. Light enters through the pupil, and is focused onto the retina by the cornea and the lens. The size of the pupil can be reduced by the muscles of the iris in bright light, by contracting the radial muscles and relaxing the circular muscle.

When looking at close objects, the ciliary muscles contract and the lens becomes more rounded and powerful. The ciliary muscles relax when viewing distant objects. Rods and cones are the receptor cells that are concentrated in the fovea of the retina. They detect light and send messages to the brain along the optic nerve. The cones require bright light and can detect colour in detail. The rods can work in dim light, but can only detect in black and white, in low detail.

Neurones are specialized cells that carry messages around the body in the form of electrical charges. Sensory neurones carry electrical messages from the sense organs to the CNS. Motor neurones carry electrical signals from the CNS to the effectors, such as muscles and glands.

Relay neurons relay messages between neurones in the CNS. Nerves are collections of thousands of neurones. Neurones connect to each other through a synapse, which is a small junction where the message is transmitted through chemical signals neurotransmitters instead of electrical. The neurotransmitter is secreted from the synaptic knob of the first neurone and diffuses across the junction, where it stimulates a new impulse in the second neurone, before quickly being destroyed by enzymes.

In a reflex action, the message is passed straight from the sensory neurone to the motor neurone via a relay neurone. This does not require conscious thought and is very quick, which helps protect the body from damage. In a voluntary action, the message is relayed into the higher centres of the brain. The Endocrine System The endocrine system is a system of glands that secretes hormones into the bloodstream. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel in the bloodstream to their target organ.

The thyroid gland secretes thyroxine to control the metabolic rate. The pancreas secretes insulin to control blood glucose level. Sex organs develop during puberty, and they start to produce sex cells.

The ovary secretes oestrogen to control the menstrual cycle in females, and progesterone to maintain pregnancy. The testis secretes testosterone in males. These result in secondary sexual characteristics, such body hair. The stimulation and release of egg cells is described by the day menstrual cycle, which is regulated by FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone.

FSH stimulates the ovum to ripen, which causes the release of oestrogen. Oestrogen promotes the growth of the uterus lining and stops the release of FSH, preventing more than one egg from being released at once.

LH is released which stimulates ovulation, and the corpus luteum secretes progesterone to maintain the thick uterus lining. After ovulation, if the egg is not fertilized, the corpus luteum breaks down and menstruation occurs. If the egg is fertilised, the embryo sends a message to the ovary stopping the corpus luteum from breaking down. Progesterone production carries on and menstruation does not occur.

Hormones can be used to increase or decrease fertility. The contraceptive pill contains oestrogen and progesterone to stop FSH from being released by the pituitary gland. On the other hand, FSH or similar hormones can be injected to try to stimulate the ovary to produce eggs this may lead to multiple births.

Male sex hormones increase muscle growth and aggression. Athletes may illegally use these hormones, known as anabolic steroids, to improve their strength and performance. Homeostasis Homeostasis is maintaining a constant internal environment. This is regulated by both the nervous system and the endocrine system. Insulin converts excess glucose into glycogen, to be stored in the liver.

Diabetics do not produce enough insulin naturally, and require insulin injections in order to control the level of glucose in their blood. Kidneys control waste and the amount of water in our bodies. The main waste product is urea, the waste material produced from the breakdown of proteins. The kidney has thousands of fine tubules, called nephrons. Glucose and most water is later reabsorbed, leaving behind a concentrated solution of salt and urea called urine.

When we are thirsty, our body conserves water by secreting ADH from the pituitary gland. This hormone causes more water to be reabsorbed. We can produce heat from respiration. Core body temperature is monitored and controlled by the brain. Temperature receptors send nerve impulses to the skin, which help to regulate our body temperature. When we feel hot, sweating cools the body because water evaporating from the skin absorbs heat energy from the body.

Vasodilation is the expansion of blood capillaries near the skin surface, which allows more blood to flow near the surface of the skin, increasing the rate of heat loss. When we feel cold, shivering increases the rate of respiration and more energy is released as heat. Vasoconstriction narrows the blood vessels near the skin and the rate of heat loss is reduced.

Microbes, Food and Disease Microbes reproduce quickly when they have sufficient food, water, and the right temperature and pH. Aerobic bacteria need oxygen, anaerobic bacteria do not.

Some microbes are very useful for the production of food. Yeast is used to make bread and wine, and bacteria is used to make yoghurt, cheese, vinegar. Fermenters are used to grow a single type of microbe under carefully controlled conditions. The conditions must be sterile to kill unwanted microbes, with the ideal amount of temperature and food. Fermenters can be used to make mycoprotein, enzymes or drugs such as insulin. Microbes can also be used to treat sewage to break down organic substances.

Methane and carbon dioxide produced can be used for fuel or used to power machinery. Most microbes are harmless, however, some microbes cause disease and are termed pathogens. It is spread by bodily fluids. Parasites are larger than microbes. The round worm lives in the gut of cats and dogs. The malaria parasite lives in the blood of mosquitoes. An organism that transmits a disease is called a vector. Penicillin is an antibiotic, a drug that can be swallowed to kill bacteria.

Painkillers help relieve pain, but they do not kill microbes. Bacteria resistance to antibiotics spreads quickly due to their high rate of reproduction. It is important to avoid overuse of antibiotics to reduce the antibiotic resistance.

Bacteriophages are viruses that attack bacteria. They can potentially be used to kill pathogenic bacteria. When a microbe antigen enters our body, our white blood cells make antibodies to destroy the antigen. Memory cells remain in the blood to produce more antibodies if the same antigen enters the body again. Vaccines are dead or weakened bacteria or viruses that are introduced into our bodies.

Our body makes antibodies to target the harmless antigen, so that when the real virulent pathogen enters our body, we have the memory cells and antibodies ready to destroy it before it can multiply and cause disease. Active immunity is when we make our own antibodies to fight disease. Passive immunity is when antibodies are injected into a person or provided from mother to baby. This provides instant protection but is temporary because once the antibodies have gone, the person does not have memory cells for that antibody.

Vaccines do not always give long-term protection. Some viruses such as influenza and the common cold mutate rapidly and change their outer coat shape, so the old antibodies do not fit the shape of the virus.

Plant Biology Photosynthesis is the process where plants make the food glucose, from carbon dioxide and water. The green pigment chlorophyll, found in chloroplasts, absorbs light energy for photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are found mainly in the palisade layer, and the spongy layer contains air spaces to allow gas exchange.

Stomata are found on the lower surface of the leaf, and allow gas exchange. The vascular bundles contain xylem vessels, which transport water, and phloem vessels, which transport glucose.

Plants respire all the time, even during the day. Although photosynthesis does not occur during the night, it takes place much faster than respiration during the day. Photosynthesis is controlled by light, the concentration of carbon dioxide and temperature.

As light or carbon dioxide increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis, until the rate levels out at a new optimum level. The rate is then stable until the new limiting factor is removed. For temperature, any increase above the optimum level causes the rate to slow, as high temperature denatures the enzymes. Glucose made in the chloroplasts can be used for respiration, converted into starch for storage, converted into cellulose for cell walls, used to make more chlorophyll, or converted into fats and protein.

For healthy growth, plants need minerals. Without nitrates for proteins, plants show stunted growth and yellow older leaves. Without phosphates for make DNA, cell membranes and chemical reactions, plants show purple younger leaves. Without potassium to help enzymes work, plants show yellow leaves with dead spots. Without magnesium for chlorophyll, plants show stunted growth with pale yellow leaves. Plant hormones called auxins mediate plant responses.

Phototropism — shoots grow towards light. Geotropism — shoots grow away from gravity, roots towards gravity. Hydrotropism — roots grow towards water. Auxins make cells grow longer. In shoots, auxin accumulates on the dark side of the soot. This causes the cells on the dark side to lengthen and the shoot bends toward the light.

Hormone rooting powder promotes the growth of roots in shoot cuttings. Unpollinated flowers can be treated to produce seedless fruits. Ripening of fruits can be slowed down in order to keep them fresh.

Some weedkillers contain a synthetic hormone which causes broad leaf plants to overgrow and die. Transpiration is the continuous movement of water up from the roots of the plants to the leaves.

Water enters the roots through the root hairs by osmosis, and travels up the stem through the xylem. Xylem vessels are dead, hollow tubular cells joined together that have had the ends of the cells removed. Water reaches the leaf cells and evaporates, passing out through the stomata by diffusion.

Higher temperature increases the movement of water molecules out of the leaf. Higher humidity reduces the concentration gradient so water molecules leave the leaf slower. Wind blows away the water molecules near the stomata so that a large diffusion gradient is maintained. Transpiration can pull water up trees metres tall because of the cohesive and adhesive properties of water — water molecules stick to themselves and to the walls of the xylem.

The evaporation of water from the leaves pulls the continuous column of water up from the roots of the plant. Plants want to avoid losing excess water by transpiration. Stomata close at night to conserve water, and they are located on the underside of the leaf to protect them from sunlight and the wind.

The top surface of the leaf is often covered with a water-impermeable, waxy layer. Plants uptake minerals through the roots through diffusion or by active transport, which requires energy. Plant cells are enclosed in a rigid cell wall. When water enters the plant by osmosis, the cell membrane is pushed hard against the cellulose wall, and the cell becomes turgid. This gives the plant support.

If water leaves a plant cell by osmosis, the cytoplasm shrinks and the cell becomes flaccid. Eventually, the plasma membrane detaches from the cell wall plasmolysis. The cell collapses and the plant wilts. The phloem is made of living cells that are joined to each other by holes that connect the cytoplasm together, forming a continuous system of living material to transport sugar and other nutrients.

Variation, Inheritance and Evolution There is variation in members of a species. Some variation is genetic or inherited from our parents, while some is a result of our environment. Some traits, like weight or intelligence, are affected by both.

Variation can be continuous showing a range of phenotypes, such as height or discontinuous phenotypes fall into distinct categories, such as blood group. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of gametes. Body cells have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs diploid , while gametes have 23 chromosomes haploid. A baby can receive either one of the 23 pairs from its mother and either one of the 23 pairs from its father, producing genetic diversity. Mitosis produces genetically identical cells, or clones.

Bacteria use mitosis as a form of reproduction asexual reproduction. Only one parent is required and the offspring are clones of the parent. The sex chromosomes are the 45th and 46th chromosomes in humans. Females are XX, males are XY.

Alleles are different versions of the same gene. Humans have two copies of each gene in their cells. During meiosis, the alleles of a gene separate into different gametes law of segregation. During fertilization, different traits are inherited independently of each other law of independent assortment. These laws were formulated by an Augustinian monk, Gregor Mendel. The genotype of an organism is its particular combination of alleles. The phenotype is its appearance.

Since there can be more than one allele for a gene, an organism can have two of the same allele homozygous or have two different alleles heterozygous. In the case of a heterozygous individual, the dominant allele is always expressed.

A recessive allele is only expressed if no dominant allele is present. Dominant alleles are usually represented with a capital letter, and recessive alleles with small letters.

Monohybrid inheritance can be represented using a Punnett square. Two heterozygous individuals would produce offspring with a 3: Some diseases can be inherited. Cystic fibrosis is a recessive disease that affects the lungs and digestive system.

Some plants can reproduce asexually, using runners e. Commercial growers can clone plants by taking cuttings. A modern way of cloning plants very quickly is to use micropropagation, which involves tissue culture of plant cells in a laboratory. Selective breeding involves breeding individuals who have the desired characteristics. Farmers do this to produce larger chicken eggs, different breeds of dog, or crops with resistance to disease. Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Organisms produce more offspring than can survive, and only those with characteristics beneficial to their environment will pass on their traits to their offspring. Evolution is supported by circumstantial evidence, like the fossil record. Genetics and genetic engineering DNA is a genetic code that consists of four bases — adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine.

Every three bases code for one amino acid, which join together to make proteins. One gene codes for one protein. The structure of DNA is a double helix. The two strands are held together by A-T and G-C base pairing. The bases are held together by a ribose sugar attached to a phosphate molecule.

DNA copies itself just before the cell divides, so each new cell has an exact copy. It is a single-stranded with thymine replaced by uracil. Each mRNA is a copy of a single gene. Once the mRNA leaves the nucleus, it enters a ribosome where a protein is made from the encoded message.

Scientists have decoded all the bases in the human DNA, so we now have a genetic map of all genes. Mutation is a change in DNA, that can be caused by radiation including X-rays and UV light from the sun and chemical mutagens as in cigarettes. If a mutation occurs in a gamete, the offspring may develop abnormally and pass on the mutation to their own offspring.

If the mutation occurs in a body cell, it could start to multiply uncontrollably, known as cancer. Using in vitro fertilisation IVF , we can identify genetic diseases in the embryo before the baby is born. A cell is removed from the embryo for genetic screening. A gene probe is attached to the marker, and the probe attaches itself to the faulty gene if present, indicating that the embryo has the genetic disease.

The genetic code is universal in all living organisms, so a gene from one organism can be placed into another where it will continue to carry out its function. The gene is cut open using restriction enzymes and then inserted into the new host organism, then DNA ligase is used to join the DNA back together. DNA from an individual can be cut into small fragments using restriction enzymes, and the fragments can be analyzed using a gel with an electric field.

Animals can be cloned by splitting apart cells from an embryo and implanting the new embryos into different host mothers embryo transplants or replacing the nucleus of an ovum with a nucleus from another sheep, and then implanting into a host mother nuclear transplant. Cloning can be used to save species that are close to extinction.

Ecology A habitat is a place where an organism lives. All the organisms in a habitat form a community. Plants compete for light, water and minerals. Animals compete for food, water, mates and territory.

Predators kill and eat other animals called prey. Parasites feed off a living organism called the host. Organism are adapted to their environment. For example, polar bears have a large body, thick insulating fur and a thick layer of fat under the skin to conserve heat.

Mutualism is when two organisms cooperate together. Lichens consist of algae and fungi. The human population has undergone a population explosion in the last century.

There has been a greater demand on land for space, resources, and food. Many other organisms have decreased in number. Carbon dioxide and methane causes the greenhouse effect.

Fertilisers and sewage cause eutrophication. Heavy metals, herbicides and carbon monoxide are poisonous. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain. Smoke causes smog and lung problems. The greenhouse effect due to gases in the atmosphere that trap heat rays that are emitted from the earth. Acid rain decreases pH in soil and natural waters, killing fish and trees.

Eutrophication caused by fertilisers or sewage that promote excess growth and death of algae and plants. Decomposing bacteria then use up all the oxygen in the water, causing all other aquatic life to die. Overexploitation can happen to resources, plants or animals that are consumed for human uses.

Many animals have become extinct forever. Deforestation leads to loss of habitat, and increased soil erosion. Fossil fuels are non-renewable and will eventually run out. Loss of organisms can have unexpected effects on the environment, such as deforestation or increased numbers of pests. Some organisms may prove to be useful in the future for drugs or breeding.

Conservation is trying to keep all species of organisms alive. Sustainable growth means using resources in an environmentally friendly way. A food chain shows how food passes through a community of organisms. Pyramids of numbers, biomass or energy can be used to quantify a particular food chain. These are shaped like pyramids because energy is lost at each level due to incomplete consumption or digestion, waste and heat loss from respiration.

Fertilisers and pesticides are used in intensive farming to get maximum food production. Animals are kept in warm conditions indoors with little space, so less energy is lost by respiration.

Decomposes break down dead animal and plant material, releasing nutrients back into the ecosystem. In the nitrogen cycle, nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium compounds to nitrates using oxygen and denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas without oxygen. Nitrogen fixing bacteria live in the soil or in the roots of pea and bean plants, and convert nitrogen gas into useful nitrogen compounds. It relates the rate constant of a reaction with various experimental parameters.

Atomic emission spectroscopy A technique associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

Born-Haber cycle A cycle that is used to analyze the energy changes of individual steps, most importantly the lattice enthalpy, during the formation of an ionic compound. Buffer A mixture of a weak acid with a comparable amount of its conjugate base. A buffer is known to resist drastic pH changes in the event of added acid or base. Dative bond A covalent bond in which one atom contributes both electrons.

Delocalization Of electrons; refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together; occurs in species that exhibit resonance. Dipole An uneven distribution of electron density along a covalent bond, caused by a difference in electronegativity of the two atoms involved in the bond.

Disproportionation A reaction during which the same compound or chemical species is both oxidized and reduced. Enthalpy The change of heat energy content of a system for a reaction or process.

Entropy A measurement of the disorderedness of a system. Electron affinity Essentially the opposite of ionization energy, electron affinity is the amount of energy released by the system when an atom in the gaseous state accepts an electron and becomes an anion.

Equilibrium constant The ration of powers of concentrations of species when equilibrium is reached in a reversible reaction. Free radical A chemical species that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Functional group A specific group of atoms on an organic molecule. This group gives the organic molecule characteristic reactivity. Gibbs free energy A thermodynamic quantity that determines whether a chemical or physical process is spontaneous based on enthalpy and entropy grounds.

Half-life The amount of time it takes for a reactant or species in a chemical or physical reaction to have its concentration decreased to half its starting value. Homologous series A series of organic compounds having the same functional group and general formula, their only difference being the number of CH2 units within the molecule.

These hybrids have identical shapes, but different spatial orientation, and can be used to explain the geometry around an atom within a molecule. Hydrogen bonding A type of strong intermolecular force.

Isomers Two compounds that share the same molecular formula, but different structural formula. Kinetics The study of the rate of chemical processes. Mechanism the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical changes occur Molecular geometry The 3-D shape of a molecule.

Nucleophilic substitution A chemical reaction that involves the substitution of an overall electron-rich group of atom s by another such group. Orbital A complicated mathematical expression, often graphically represented as probability surfaces in 3-D coordinates, that describes the probability of finding an electron with a certain volume of space.

Rate law a mathematical expression that demonstrates the expected rate of product formation or reactant consumption as the mathematical product of a rate constant and powers of the concentration of species present in the reaction mixture.

Reaction order With respect to a certain reactant, this is defined as the power to which its concentration term in the rate law is raised. Resonance The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms resonance structures are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion. Standard reduction potential A measurement, in Volts, of the ease with which a chemical species picks up electrons and becomes reduced.

A large positive value corresponds to a favorable reduction reaction, and vice versa. Thermodynamics The study of the interrelation of heat energy and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Acid A chemical that produces hydrogen ions when it dissolves in water. Activation energy The minimum amount of energy required for a given chemical reaction to take place. However, Edexcel A level students will be sitting the same paper as the students in UK concurrently.

Additionally, countries outside of the United Kingdom have established academic qualifications with the same or similar name, and with a similar format, to the United Kingdom A levels.

However, these qualifications may be distinct in certain ways from those offered in the United Kingdom. The most common criticism of the A-level system is an accusation of grade inflation. The press have noted the steady rise in average grades for several consecutive years and drawn the conclusion that A-levels are becoming consistently easier.

He found that students of similar ability were achieving on average about 2 grades lower in the past than they were in the present. In the case of maths it was nearer to 3. The government and teaching bodies maintain that the improved grades represent higher levels of achievement due to improved and more experienced teaching methods, [37] [38] but some educationalists and journalists argue that the change is due to grade inflation and the examinations getting easier.

The results of the first year AS-level examinations has allowed students to drop subjects they find difficult after one year and to retake examinations to achieve a higher grade. Universities in Britain have complained that the increasing number of A grades awarded makes it hard to distinguish between students at the upper end of the ability spectrum.

In addition, the head of admissions at the University of Cambridge outlined changes [46] he believed should be made to the current system, particularly the use of the Advanced Extension Awards , a more challenging qualification based on the more advanced content of the A-level syllabus. The Tomlinson Inquiry was set up to ascertain whether this was an underhand to disprove that A levels were becoming too easy.

As a result, some papers were re-marked but only 1, A level and AS-level students saw an improvement to their results. The reform of the Mathematics syllabus, following calls that it was too hard, [53] attracted criticism for allegedly being made easier. It is alleged that this makes the course easier as students do less work for the same qualifications.

Further reforms to make the Mathematics syllabus more popular have been met with mixed opinions. Despite ongoing work to improve the image of A-levels in the business community, a number of business leaders are beginning to express concern about the suitability of the qualification for school leavers and to urge the adoption of the International Baccalaureate in the UK as an alternative qualification at schools. With increased modularisation of subjects, the amount of time that young adults are spending being examined in the UK has risen considerably.

It was estimated in a report by educationalists that by the age of 19 children will have spent an entire year of their school education being assessed. However, this will not be the case for all A levels: Chinese will also move to UMS, but instead of two units, it will move to three units: AS will have two units, A2 will have one.

It is the first A level to have an odd number of units since Curriculum As a result of dislike of the modular system, many schools now offer the alternative International Baccalaureate Diploma qualification.

The Diploma Programme, administered by the International Baccalaureate , is a recognised pre-university educational programme. Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair recently suggested that one state school in every county should offer the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme as an alternative to A levels. The A-level has been criticised for providing less breadth since many A-level students do not generally study more than three subjects in their final year.

English Language, English Literature, French, German, Spanish , and a "creative" subject like Art Studies , in many cases students choose three closely linked subjects, for instance, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry or Sociology, Psychology, and Politics. This is in part due to university entrance requirements, which, for degree programs such as medicine, may require three related A-level subjects, but non-traditional combinations are becoming more common "British Council Australia Education UK".

However, others disagree, arguing that the additional AS-level s studied would already have provided more breadth compared with the old system. Students applying to universities before receiving their A Level results typically do so on the basis of predicted grades, which are issued by schools and colleges. A possible reformation would be something called the post-qualifications applications system PQA , where applicants apply to university after they receive their results.

However, a more recent UCAS report shows that although the reliability of predicted grades declines in step with family income, this can still lead to an over-prediction effect for lower income groups.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of Advanced Level subjects. British Educational Research Journal. Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 16 August Fulltime educational courses for to year-olds. Retrieved 18 August Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 22 October Joint Council of Qualifications.

National percentage figures for A level grades". Record drop in top grades as fewer get university places". Some students may be eligible for generous cash bursaries. All applicants must be able to demonstrate proficiency in the English language.

For more information about English qualifications please see our English language requirements. Modules and module details including, but not limited to, location and time are subject to change over time.

This module introduces students to key concepts of cell biology and human physiology to provide a foundation for subsequent study of biological subjects at Level 4. This module will introduce important ideas and concepts in fundamental chemistry that will allow students to study scientific subjects at level 4. The module introduces students to the application of the science of nutrition and sport in health and disease. It intends to offer a general insight into each area; students will discover the key concepts of nutritional and sport science.

The module will provide a greater understanding thereby allowing students with little or no sport or nutritional science background to progress to undertake a degree in Human Nutrition, Dietetics, Sport Science or Sports Therapy at level 4. This module will introduce i the basic mathematical concepts needed to succeed on any science degree course; ii basic laboratory techniques related to life science modules, designed to support and re-inforce theoretical syllabus content; iii study skills to prepare students for future studies.

The practical section will reinforce safe practice in the laboratory environment and introduce laboratory record keeping. The mathematics section will be taught using equations relevant to biology and chemistry to encourage connections between disciplines to be made.

Supporting material will be available on-line; tutorial sessions will focus on practising mathematical techniques. Formative online pre-laboratory session questions will prepare the students in advance for the practical in question.

Formative exercises in the form of minitests will be carried out during tutorial sessions to reinforce the previous lecture. The first year of this extended degree Year 0 is a modular course that runs over two semesters.

In each semester, all full-time students enrol on four modules. Year 0 can also be studied part-time over two years.

Local and national government, health departments and sectors are all keen employers of Human Nutrition graduates, as are health promotion units and charities. Extended degrees provide applicants with an alternative route into higher education.

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Advanced level qualifications are generally studied during the ages of after a student has taken their GCSE level qualifications. As the name suggests the level of study in the subjects is at a considerably higher level . The University of Arizona (UA) is the flagship institution in the State of Arizona and offers graduate programs in more than areas of study. Graduate programs of study are described here in our Graduate Catalog and Program Descriptions.