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Was Queen Elizabeth I right to have Mary Stuart executed?

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By choosing us as your trained academic advisors, you will gain a whole set of other benefits, including, but not limited to:. Not content with his position as king consort, he demanded the Crown Matrimonial , which would have made him a co-sovereign of Scotland with the right to keep the Scottish throne for himself if he outlived his wife. He was jealous of her friendship with her Catholic private secretary, David Rizzio , who was rumoured to be the father of her child.

She was thought to be near death or dying. Her recovery from 25 October onwards was credited to the skill of her French physicians. At Craigmillar Castle , near Edinburgh, at the end of November , Mary and leading nobles held a meeting to discuss the "problem of Darnley". In late January , Mary prompted her husband to return to Edinburgh. Men say that, instead of seizing the murderers, you are looking through your fingers while they escape; that you will not seek revenge on those who have done you so much pleasure, as though the deed would never have taken place had not the doers of it been assured of impunity.

For myself, I beg you to believe that I would not harbour such a thought. In the absence of Lennox, and with no evidence presented, Bothwell was acquitted after a seven-hour trial on 12 April. Between 21 and 23 April , Mary visited her son at Stirling for the last time. On her way back to Edinburgh on 24 April, Mary was abducted, willingly or not, by Lord Bothwell and his men and taken to Dunbar Castle , where he may have raped her.

Originally Mary believed that many nobles supported her marriage, but things soon turned sour between the newly elevated Bothwell created Duke of Orkney and his former peers, and the marriage proved to be deeply unpopular.

Both Protestants and Catholics were shocked that Mary should marry the man accused of murdering her husband. He was imprisoned in Denmark, became insane and died in Mary apparently expected Elizabeth to help her regain her throne.

As an anointed queen, Mary refused to acknowledge the power of any court to try her and refused to attend the inquiry at York personally she sent representatives , but Elizabeth forbade her attendance anyway. The authenticity of the casket letters has been the source of much controversy among historians.

It is impossible now to prove either way. There are incomplete printed transcriptions in English, Scots, French, and Latin from the s. The casket letters did not appear publicly until the Conference of , although the Scottish privy council had seen them by December The letters were never made public to support her imprisonment and forced abdication.

Historian Jenny Wormald believes this reluctance on the part of the Scots to produce the letters, and their destruction in , whatever their content, constitute proof that they contained real evidence against Mary, [] whereas Weir thinks it demonstrates the lords required time to fabricate them. Among them was the Duke of Norfolk, [] who secretly conspired to marry Mary in the course of the commission, although he denied it when Elizabeth alluded to his marriage plans, saying "he meant never to marry with a person, where he could not be sure of his pillow".

In the end, Moray returned to Scotland as its regent, and Mary remained in custody in England. Elizabeth had succeeded in maintaining a Protestant government in Scotland, without either condemning or releasing her fellow sovereign. On 26 January , Mary was moved to Tutbury Castle [] and placed in the custody of the Earl of Shrewsbury and his formidable wife Bess of Hardwick. In May , Elizabeth attempted to mediate the restoration of Mary in return for guarantees of the Protestant religion, but a convention held at Perth rejected the deal overwhelmingly.

English troops intervened in the Scottish civil war, consolidating the power of the anti-Marian forces. Norfolk was executed, and the English Parliament introduced a bill barring Mary from the throne, to which Elizabeth refused to give royal assent.

In , Mary proposed an "Association" with her son, James. She also offered to join an offensive league against France. Her only condition was the immediate alleviation of the conditions of her captivity.

James went along with the idea for a while but then rejected it and signed an alliance treaty with Elizabeth, abandoning his mother. On 11 August , after being implicated in the Babington Plot , Mary was arrested while out riding and taken to Tixall.

Mary was misled into thinking her letters were secure, while in reality they were deciphered and read by Walsingham. Mary was convicted on 25 October and sentenced to death with only one commissioner, Lord Zouche , expressing any form of dissent. At Fotheringhay on the evening of 7 February , Mary was told that she was to be executed the next morning.

It was reached by two or three steps and furnished with the block, a cushion for her to kneel on and three stools, for her and the earls of Shrewsbury and Kent , who were there to witness the execution.

She replied, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles. Mary was not beheaded with a single strike.

The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew , which the executioner cut through using the axe.

Afterwards, he held her head aloft and declared, "God save the Queen. When the news of the execution reached Elizabeth, she became indignant and asserted that Davison had disobeyed her instructions not to part with the warrant and that the Privy Council had acted without her authority.

He was released nineteen months later after Cecil and Walsingham interceded on his behalf. Assessments of Mary in the sixteenth century divided between Protestant reformers such as George Buchanan and John Knox , who vilified her mercilessly, and Catholic apologists such as Adam Blackwood , who praised, defended and eulogised her. William Robertson and David Hume argued that the casket letters were genuine and that Mary was guilty of adultery and murder, while William Tytler argued the reverse.

Cowan also produced more balanced works. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Mary I of England.

For other uses, see Mary, Queen of Scots disambiguation. Francis II of France m. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley m. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell m.

In this article, dates before are Old Style, with the exception that years are assumed to start on 1 January rather than 25 March.

The phrase was first recorded by John Knox in the s as "The devil go with it! It will end as it began: The disputed will is printed in Historical Manuscripts Commission Calendar of State Papers, Spain: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. The Wars of Religion in France. University of Chicago Press. Mary, Queen of Scots: John Knox claimed the surgeons who examined the body were lying, and that Darnley had been strangled, but all the sources agree there were no marks on the body and there was no reason for the surgeons to lie as Darnley was murdered either way Weir , p.

For other versions see Guy , p. Other contemporaries dismissed the abduction as bogus Donaldson , p. See also Guy , pp. Wormald , p. The Crime of Mary Stuart. Letter Book of Amias Paulet , pp. Execution of Mary Stuart". In von Klarwill, Victor. John Lane The Bodley Head.

Francis Walsingham and the secret war that saved England. Weir , p. Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in British monarchs after the Acts of Union Pictish and Scottish monarchs.

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Mary was only a baby when she became Queen of Scotland. Sadly her father, James V of Scotland, died when Mary was only six days old. In Mary was crowned Queen of Scotland at Stirling Castle. Mary was known as Mary Queen of Scots because she became Queen of Scotland.

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(–87). The life of Mary Stuart, more commonly called Mary, Queen of Scots, has been a favorite subject of dramatists and poets. She became the central figure in a complex political drama that resulted in her untimely death. She lived in the turbulent period of the Protestant Reformation, and she was a Roman Catholic.

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Plenary lesson on Uniting the UK. Woodlands Junior Homework Help new website. An eyewitness report of the execution of Mary Queen of Scots at Fotheringay Castle and events that took place in London, Scotland, Paris and Spain after the beheading · Mary, Queen of Scots is perhaps the best known figure in Scotland's history. writing phd thesis engineering Mary Queen Of Scots Homework Help dissertation concours assistante sociale digital libraraies dissertation.

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She was also Protestant, which former supporters of her deceased Catholic sister Mary, deplored. Mary Queen of Scots did not have the power or the grace and charm of Elizabeth. Mary was a schemer who wanted England's throne. She married the heir to the French throne, but he died soon after. In my opinion and looking at things the way people thought back then, Elizabeth was completely justified in having Mary executed. Mary was simply too much of a danger to Elizabeth and her reign. We know, for example, that Mary was actively trying to replace Elizabeth as the Queen of England.